Acoso y rasgos psicopáticos en adultos

  • Guilherme W. Wendt Universidad de Londres (Reino Unido)
  • Marli Appel-Silva Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil)
  • Alice P. Jones-Bartoli Universidad de Londres (Reino Unido)

Resumen

Hay una buena cantidad de investigación sobre los predictores del comportamiento agresivo y antisocial en niños, adolescentes y adultos. Además, trabajos previos han establecido una asociación entre la personalidad psicopática y los comportamientos disruptivos entre los jóvenes, con asociaciones claras con el acoso escolar. Sin embargo, poco se sabe sobre el papel de los rasgos psicopáticos de la personalidad en la manifestación del acoso en adultos jóvenes. Con el fin de obtener una comprensión adicional sobre la naturaleza de la relación entre el acoso y la psicopatía, la investigación actual propone comparar los rasgos de la personalidad psicopática en relación con los papeles sociales de los participantes relativos al acoso. La muestra de este estudio se compone de 273 estudiantes universitarios (edad media=25.5; DT=6.1), que contestaran a medidas de psicopatía y conductas de acoso. Con la excepción del dominio Despreocupación/Falta de planificación, Ausencia de miedo, Inmunidad al estrés e Influencia Social, todos los demás dominios psicopáticos medidos por el PPI-R-40 se correlacionaron positivamente con la victimización (rdistancia=.07-.35). Un mayor auto relato de acosar a los demás se asoció con niveles más elevados de Externalización de la culpa, Maquiavelismo, Disconformidad/rebeldía, Impulsividad autocentrada, Influencia social y Psicopatía total (rdistancia=.08-.38). Diferencias significativas entre estar involucrado en el acoso en relación a la Externalización de la culpa, el Maquiavelismo, la Disconformidad/rebeldía, la Influencia social, la Psicopatía total y el Factor de impulsividad autocentrado fueron encontradas. Las implicaciones del estudio, junto con las limitaciones y las orientaciones para investigaciones futuras serán discutidas.

Citas

Barker, E., Arseneault, L., Brendgen, M., Fontaine, N., & Maughan, B. (2008). Joint development
of bullying and victimization in adolescence: Relations to delinquency and self-harm.
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(9), 1030-
1038. doi:10.1097/CHI.ObO13e31817eec98

Baughman, H.M., Dearing, S., Giammarco, E., & Vernon, P.A. (2012). Relationships between
bullying behaviours and the Dark Triad: A study with adults. Personality and Individual
Differences, 52(5), 571-575. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2011.11.020

Bender, D., & Losel, F. (2011). Bullying at school as a predictor of delinquency, violence and
other anti-social behaviour in adulthood. Criminal Behavior and Mental Health, 21(2),
99-106. doi:10.1002/cbm.799

Benning, S.D., Patrick, C.J., Hicks, B.M., Blonigen, D.M., & Krueger, R.F. (2003). Factor
Structure of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory: Validity and Implications for
Clinical Assessment. Psychological Assessment, 15(3), 340–350. doi:10.1037/1040–
3590.15.3.340

Brankley, A.E., & Rule, N.O. (2014). Threat perception: How psychopathy and Machiavellianism
relate to social perceptions during competition. Personality and Individual Differences,
71, 103–107. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2014.07.015

Carbone-Lopez, K., Esbensen, F., & Brick, B.T. (2010). Correlates and consequences of peer
victimization: gender differences in direct and indirect forms of bullying. Youth Violence
and Juvenile Justice, 8, 332-350.doi:10.1177/1541204010362954

Cleckley, H.M. (1988). The mask of sanity: An attempt to clarify some issues about the so called
psychopathic personality (5th ed.). Augusta: Emily S. Cleckley.

Copeland, W.E., Wolke, D., Angold, A., & Costello, E.J. (2013). Adult Psychiatric Outcomes of
Bullying and Being Bullied by Peers in Childhood and Adolescence. JAMA Psychiatry,
70(4), 419. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.504

Craig, W.M. (1998). The relationship among bullying, victimization, depression, anxiety, and
aggression in elementary school children. Personality and Individual Differences, 24,
123–130.

Crick, N.R., & Dodge, K.A. (1994). A review and reformulation of social information–processing
mechanisms in children’s social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 74–101.
doi:10.1037/0033–2909.115.1.74

DeCamp, W., & Newby, B. (2015). From bullied to deviant: the victim-offender overlap among
bullying victims. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 13(1), 3-17.
doi:10.1177/1541204014521250

DeLisi, M., Angton, A., Vaughn, M.G., Trulson, C.R., Caudill, J.W., & Beaver, K.M. (2014). Not
My Fault: Blame Externalization Is the Psychopathic Feature Most Associated With
Pathological Delinquency Among Confined Delinquents. International Journal of
Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 58(12), 1415-1430.
doi:10.1177/0306624X13496543

Dodge, K.A. (1991). The structure and function of reactive and proactive aggression. In D. Pepler,
K. Rubin (Eds). The Development and Treatment for Childhood Aggression (pp. 201-
218). Hillsdale: Erlbum.

Eisenbarth, H., Lilienfeld, S.O., & Yarkoni, T. (2015). Using a genetic algorithm to abbreviate the
Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R). Psychological Assessment, 27(1),
194-202. doi:10.1037/pas0000032

Espelage, D.L., & Holt, M. (2001). Bullying and victimization during early adolescence: Peer
influences and psychosocial correlates. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 2(2), 123-142.
doi:10.1300/J135v02n02_08

Fanti, K.A., & Kimonis, E.R. (2013). Dimensions of juvenile psychopathy distinguish “bullies,”
“bully-victims,” and “victims”. Psychology of Violence, 3(4), 396–409.
doi:10.1037/a0033951

Frick, P.J., Cornell, A.H., Barry, C.T., Bodin, S.D., & Dane, H.E. (2003). Callous-unemotional
traits and conduct problems in the prediction of conduct problem severity, aggression,
and self-report of delinquency. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31, 457-470.
doi:10.1023/A:1023899703866

Garaigordobil, M., & Oñederra, J.A. (2010). Inteligencia emocional en las víctimas de acoso
escolar y en los agresores. European Journal of Education and Psychology, 3(2), 243-
256. doi:10.1989/ejep.v3i2.63

Higgins, G.E., Khey, D.N., Dawson-Edwards, B.C., & Marcum, C.D. (2012). Examining the link
between being a victim of bullying and delinquency trajectories among an African
American sample. International Criminal Justice Review, 22, 110-122.
doi:10.1177/1057567712443965

Juvonen, J., & Graham, S. (2014). Bullying in Schools: The Power of Bullies and the Plight of
Victims. Annual Review of Psychology, 65(1), 159-185. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych010213-115030

Kiire, S. (2017). Psychopathy rather than Machiavellianism or narcissism facilitates intimate
partner violence via fast life strategy. Personality and Individual Differences, 104,
401–406. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2016.08.043

Kimonis, E.R., Skeem, J.L., Cauffman, E., & Dmitrieva, J. (2011). Are secondary variants of
juvenile psychopathy more reactively violent and less psychosocially mature than
primary variants? Law and Human Behavior, 35(5), 381-391. doi:10.1007/s10979-010-
9243-3

Lilienfeld, S.O., & Andrews, B.P. (1996). Development and Preliminary Validation of a SelfReport Measure of Psychopathic Personality Traits in Noncriminal Population. Journal
of Personality Assessment, 66(3), 488–524. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa6603_3

Losey, B. (2011). Bullying, suicide, and homicide: understanding, assessing, and preventing
threats to self and others for victims of bullying. New York: Routledge.

McMains, M.J., & Mullins, W.C. (2014). Crisis negotiations: managing critical incidents and
hostage situations in law enforcement and corrections. New York: Routledge.

Méndez, I., & Cerezo, F. (2010). Bullying y factores de riesgo para la salud en estudiantes de
secundaria. European Journal of Education and Psychology, 3(2), 209-218.
doi:10.1989/ejep.v3i2.61

Menesini, E., & Salmivalli, C. (2017). Bullying in schools: the state of knowledge and effective
interventions. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 22(sup1), 240–253.
doi:10.1080/13548506.2017.1279740

Miller, J.D., Hyatt, C.S., Maples-Keller, J.L., Carter, N.T., & Lynam D.R. (2016) Psychopathy and
Machiavellianism: a distinction without a difference? Journal of Personality, n/a-n/a.
doi:10.1111/jopy.12251

Neumann, C.S., Malterer, M.B., & Newman, J.P. (2008). Factor structure of the Psychopathic
Personality Inventory (PPI): Findings from a large incarcerated sample. Psychological
Assessment, 20(2), 169–174. doi:10.1037/1040–3590.20.2.169

Olweus, D. (1991). Bully/victim problems among schoolchildren: basic facts and effects of a
school based intervention program. In D. Pepler, & K. Rubin (Eds). The Development
and Treatment of Childhood Aggression (pp. 411-448). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Ragatz, L.L., Anderson, R.J., Fremouw, W., & Schwartz, R. (2011). Criminal thinking patterns,
aggression styles, and the psychopathic traits of late high school bullies and bullyvictims. Aggressive Behavior, 37(2), 145-160. doi:10.1002/ab.20377

Reijntjes, A., Vermande, M., Thomaes, S., Goossens, F., Olthof, T., Aleva, L., & Van der Meulen,
M. (2016). Narcissism, Bullying, and Social Dominance in Youth: A Longitudinal
Analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44(1), 63–74.
doi:10.1007/s10802–015–9974–1

Rodkin, P.C., Espelage, D.L., & Hanish, L.D. (2015). A relational framework for understanding
bullying: developmental antecedents and outcomes. The American Psychologist, 70(4),
311-321. doi:10.1037/a0038658

Ruchensky, J.R., Edens, J.F., Donnellan, M.B., & Witt, E.A. (2017). Examining the reliability and
validity of an abbreviated Psychopathic Personality Inventory—Revised (PPI-R) in four
samples. Psychological Assessment, 29(2), 238–244. doi:10.1037/pas0000335

Schmidt, F.L., & Hunter, J.E. (2014). Methods of meta-analysis: Correcting error and bias in
research findings. London: Sage publications.

Sourander, A., Jensen, P., Ronning, J.A., Niemela, S., Helenius, H., Sillanmaki, L., & …
Almqvist, F. (2007). What Is the Early Adulthood Outcome of Boys Who Bully or Are
Bullied in Childhood? The Finnish “From a Boy to a Man” Study. Pediatrics, 120(2),
397–404. doi:10.1542/peds.2006-2704

Sutton, J., Smith, P.K., & Swettenham, J. (1999a). Social cognition and bullying: social
inadequacy or skilled manipulation? The British Journal of Developmental Psychology,
17, 435–450. doi:10.1348/026151099165384

Sutton, J., Smith, P.K., & Swettenham, J. (1999b). Bullying and “theory of mind”: A critique of
the “social skills deficit” view of anti–social behavior. Social Development, 8, 117–127.
doi:10.1111/1467–9507.00083

Thompson, D.F., Ramos, C.L., & Willett, J.K. (2014). Psychopathy: clinical features,
developmental basis and therapeutic challenges. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and
Therapeutics, 39(5), 485–495. doi:10.1111/jcpt.12182

van Geel, M., Toprak, F., Goemans, A., Zwaanswijk, W., & Vedder, P. (2016). Are Youth
Psychopathic Traits Related to Bullying? Meta-analyses on Callous-Unemotional Traits,
Narcissism, and Impulsivity. Child Psychiatry & Human Development.
doi:10.1007/s10578-016-0701-0

Warren, G.C. (2009). The relationship between psychopathy and indirect aggression in a
community sample. (Doctoral dissertation, University of York). Retrieved on 12
November 2016, from http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/785/1/thesisfinal.pdf

Zych, I., Farrington, D.P., Llorent, V.J., & Ttofi, M.M. (2017). Personal Protective Factors against
Bullying: Emotional, Social, and Moral Competencies. In I. Zych, D. P. Farrington, V.J.
Llorent, & M.M. Ttofi (Eds.), Protecting Children Against Bullying and Its
Consequences (pp. 23–40). Cham: Springer International Publishing.