Desempeño cognitivo y rendimiento académico: ¿cómo confluyen familia y escuela?

  • Ana Filipa Alves Research Centre in Education, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal
  • Cristiano Mauro Assis Gomes Laboratório de Investigação da Arquitetura Cognitiva (LAICO)/Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais/Brasil, Bolsa de Produtividade, nível 2, CNPq-Brasil, Brazil
  • Ana Martins Research Centre in Education, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal
  • Leandro da Silva Almeida Research Centre in Education, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal

Resumen

Los niños ingresan en el Sistema Educativo con diferentes experiencias escolares, alcanzando también diferentes niveles de aprendizaje y resultados escolares. En este estudio, nuestra pretensión es comprender el impacto de la familia y de la escuela en el desempeño cognitivo y el rendimiento académico de los niños durante la educación primaria. La muestra se compone de 406 niños portugueses de preescolar y del 1° ciclo de Educación Primaria, con edades comprendidas entre los 4 y los 10 años. Por medio de modelo completo de ecuaciones estructurales, se observa que la variable latente familia (nivel de escolaridad y nivel socioeconómico) y la variable latente escuela (comunidad y tipo de escuela) tienen un impacto significativo en el rendimiento académico. No obstante, solo la familia presenta un impacto significativo en el desempeño cognitivo. Estos resultados sugieren que el impacto de la escuela en el cociente de inteligencia no es tan relevante en los primeros años o niveles escolares, donde la familia presenta mayor explicación de la varianza.

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