Análisis del efecto san Mateo en un estudio longitudinal sobre el desarrollo lector durante la educación primaria (1.° a 5.°)

  • Manuel Aguilar Villagrán Departamento de Psicología, Universidad de Cádiz, Cádiz, España
  • Estíbaliz Aragón Mendizabal Departamento de Psicología, Universidad de Cádiz, Cádiz, España
  • José I. Navarro Guzmán Departamento de Psicología, Universidad de Cádiz, Cádiz, España
  • Cándida Delgado Casas Departamento de Psicología, Universidad de Cádiz, Cádiz, España
  • Esperanza Marchena Consejero Departamento de Psicología, Universidad de Cádiz, Cádiz, España

Resumen

El efecto san Mateo en lectura se refiere al fenómeno contrastado de cómo las diferencias en el rendimiento entre buenos y malos lectores pueden incrementarse a lo largo del tiempo de escolarización. Presentamos un estudio longitudinal acerca de la presencia/ausencia del efecto san Mateo en una muestra de estudiantes evaluados desde 1.° a 5.° de educación primaria. Cincuenta y un estudiantes que comenzaron en 2011 la educación primaria fueron evaluados en pruebas de lectura (TECLE, PROLEC-R, ACL y BEL) en 5 ocasiones (cada mes de junio entre los años 2011 y 2015). Se seleccionó a un grupo de niños (n = 13) considerado en riesgo (usando el criterio del centil por debajo de 25 en la prueba TECLE aplicada al finalizar 1.° de educación primaria) y comparamos, durante 5 cursos evaluados, el desarrollo de la lectura de este grupo de riesgo con un grupo de lectores medios (n = 26) y de lectores de nivel alto (n = 12) en la misma muestra de participantes. Los resultados, al realizar un seguimiento del perfil lector del alumnado en riesgo, permiten valorar los cambios y mejoras producidos en este alumnado entre las distintas evaluaciones a lo largo de los años de duración del estudio. Los resultados globales muestran diferencias entre los grupos evaluados pero no un aumento de estas entre los lectores en riesgo y los demás grupos. Asimismo, el seguimiento individual del alumnado en riesgo constata que alguno de ellos mejora en los parámetros de lectura por encima de la media general. Se discuten algunas implicaciones educativas del estudio.

Citas

Archer, J. (2004). Sex differences in aggression in real-world settings: A meta-analytic review. Review of General Psychology, 8(4), 291---322. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.8.4.291

Asseraf, M. y Vaillancourt, T. (2015). Longitudinal links between perfectionism and depression in children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43, 895---908. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/ s10802-014-9947-9

Averill, J. R. (1982). Anger and aggression: An essay on emotion. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Besser, A., Flett, G. L. y Hewitt, P. L. (2004). Perfectionism, cognition, and affect in response to performance failure vs. success. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 22(4), 301---324.

Blankstein, K. R. y Lumley, C. H. (2008). Multidimensional perfectionism and ruminative brooding in current dysphoria, anxiety, worry, and anger. Journal of Rational-Emotive & CognitiveBehavior Therapy, 26(3), 168---193. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/ s10942-007-0068-z

Buss, A. H. y Perry, M. (1992). The Aggression Questionnaire. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63(3), 452---459. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.63.3.452

Cameron, N. (1951). Perceptual organization and behavior pathology. En R. R. Blake y G. V. Ramsay (Eds.), Perception: An approach to personality (pp. 283-306). New York: Ronald Press Company. doi: 10.1037/11505-010.

Castro, J., Gila, A., Gual, P., Lahortiga, F., Saura, B. y Toro, J. (2004). Perfectionism dimensions in children and adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Journal of Adolescent Health, 35, 392---398. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2003.11.094

Chester, D. S., Merwin, L. M. y DeWall, C. N. (2015). Maladaptive perfectionism’s link to aggression and self-harm: Emotion regulation as a mechanism. Aggressive Behavior, 41(5), 443---454. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.21578

Christopher, M. M. y Shewmaker, J. (2010). The relationship of perfectionism to affective variables in gifted and highly able children. Gifted Child Today, 33(3), 21---30.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

De Maris, A. (2003). Logistic regression. En J. A. Schinka y W. F. Velicer (Eds.), Research methods in psychology (pp.509-532). New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.

DiBartolo, P. M. y Varner, S. P. (2012). How children’s cognitive and affective responses to a novel task relate to the dimensions of perfectionism. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 30, 62---76. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/s10942-011-0130-8

Dollard, J., Doob, L., Miller, N., Mowrer, O. y Sears, R. (1939). Frustration and aggression. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Dry, S. M., Kane, R. T. y Rooney, R. M. (2015). An investigation into the role of coping in preventing depression associated with perfectionism in preadolescent children. Frontiers in Public Health, 3, 190. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2015.00190

Dunkley, D. M. y Blankstein, K. R. (2000). Self-critical perfectionism, coping, hassles, and current distress: A structural equation modeling approach. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 24(6), 713---730. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005543529245

Flett, G. L., Hewitt, P. L., Boucher, D. J., Davidson, L. A. y Munro, Y. (2000). The Child-Adolescent Perfectionism Scale: Development, validation, and association with adjustment. Unpublished manuscript. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: York University.

Frost, R. O., Heimberg, R. G., Holt, C. S., Mattia, J. I. y Neubauer, A. L. (1993). A comparison of two measures of perfectionism. Personality and Individual Differences, 14, 119---126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(93)90181-2

Garaigordobil, M., Martínez-Valderrey, V. y Aliri, J. (2013). Autoestima, empatía y conducta agresiva en adolescentes víctimas de bullying presencial. European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education, 3(1), 29---40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1989/ejihpe.v3i1.21

Gaudreau, P. y Thompson, A. (2010). Testing a 2 × 2 model of dispositional perfectionism. Personality and Individual Differences, 48(5), 532---537. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2009.11.031

Hampson, S. E., Tildesley, E., Andrews, J. A., Luyckx, K. y Mroczek, D. K. (2010). The relation of change in hostility and sociability during childhood to substance use in mid adolescence. Journal of Research in Personality, 44(1), 103---114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2009.12.006

Harachi, T. W., Fleming, C. B., White, H. R., Ensminger, M. E., Abbott, R. D., Catalano, R. F., et al. (2006). Aggressive behavior among girls and boys during middle childhood: Predictors and sequelae of trajectory group membership. Aggressive Behavior, 32, 279---293. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.20125

Hewitt, P. L., Caelian, C. F., Chen, C. y Flett, G. L. (2014). Perfectionism, stress, daily hassles, hopelessness, and suicide potential in depressed psychiatric adolescents. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 36, 663---674. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10862-014-9427-0

Hewitt, P. L., Caelian, C. F., Flett, G. L., Sherry, S. B., Collins, L. y Flynn, C. A. (2002). Perfectionism in children: Associations with depression, anxiety, and anger. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 1049---1061. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/S0191-8869(01)00109-X

Huesmann, L. R., Dubow, E. F. y Boxer, P. (2009). Continuity of aggression from childhood to early adulthood as a predictor of life outcomes: Implications for the adolescent-limited and lifecourse-persistent models. Aggressive Behavior, 35(2), 136---149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.20300

Inglés, C. J., Gonzálvez-Maciá, C., García-Fernández, J. M., Vicent, M. y Martínez-Monteagudo, M. C. (2015). Current status of research on school refusal. European Journal of Education and Psychology, 8(1), 37---52.

Inglés, C. J., Torregrosa, M. S., García-Fernández, J. M., Martínez-Monteagudo, M. C., Estévez, E. y Delgado, B. (2014). Conducta agresiva e inteligencia emocional en la adolescencia. European Journal of Education and Psychology, 7(1), 29---41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1989/ejep.v7i1.150

Kawamura, K. Y., Frost, R. O. y Harmatz, M. G. (2002). The relationship of perceived parenting styles to perfectionism. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 317---327. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(01)00026-5

Kerr, M. A. y Schneider, B. H. (2008). Anger expression in children and adolescents: A review of the empirical literature. Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 559---577. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.cpr.2007.08.001

Kokko, K. y Pulkkinen, L. (2005). Stability of aggressive behavior from childhood to middle age in women and men. Aggressive Behavior, 31(5), 485---497. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab. 20063

Leary, M. R., Twenge, J. M. y Quinlivan, E. (2006). Interpersonal rejection as a determinant of anger and aggression. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10(2), 111---132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327957pspr1002 2

Lee, Y. y Mi, P. (2010). Clusters by perfectionism, affect intensity and emotional clarity and psychological adjustment among adolescents. Asian Journal of Education, 11(3), 181---207.

Lubke, G. H., Ouwens, K. G., de Moor, M., Trull, T. y Boomsma, D. I. (2015). Population heterogeneity of trait anger and differential associations of trait anger facets with borderline personality features, neuroticism, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and alcohol problems. Psychiatry Research, 230(2), 553---560. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2015.10.003

Macedo, A., Bos, S. C., Marques, M., Maia, B., Soares, M. J., Pereira, T., et al. (2009). Perfectionism dimensions in pregnancy-A study in Portuguese women. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 12, 43---52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00737-008-0042-5

Marten-DiBartolo, P. y Rendón, M. J. (2012). A critical examination of the construct of perfectionism and its relationship to mental health in Asian and African Americans using a crosscultural framework. Clinical Psychology Review, 32, 139---152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2011.09.007

Miller, T. O., Smith, T. W., Turner, C. W., Guijarro, M. L. y Hallet, A. J. (1996). A meta-analytic review of research on hostility and physical health. Psychological Bulletin, 119(2), 322---348. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.119.2.322

Myoung-Ho, H. (2009). The mediating effect of cognitive coping strategies on the relationships between perfectionism and anger expression. The Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 28(1), 97---116.

Novaco, R.W. (2010). Anger and psychopathology. En M. Potegal, G. Stemmler y C. Spielberger (Eds.), International handbook of anger. Constituent and concomitant biological psychological and social processes (pp. 465-498). Minneapolis, USA: Springer.

Öngen, D. E. (2010). The relationships between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism and aggression among Turkish adolescents. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 20(1), 99---108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1375/ajgc.20.1.99

Orobio, B., Veerman, J. W., Koops, W., Bosch, J. D. y Monshouwer, H. J. (2002). Hostile attribution of intent and aggressive behavior: A meta-analysis. Child Development, 73(3), 916---934.

Pamies, L. y Quiles, Y. (2014). Perfeccionismo y factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de trastornos alimentarios en adolescentes españoles de ambos géneros. Anales de Psicología, 30(2), 620---626. http://dx.doi.org/10.6018/analesps.30.2.158441

Pérez-Fuentes, M. C., Gázquez, J. J., Molero, M., Cardila, F., Martos, A., Barragán, A. B., et al. (2015). Impulsividad y consumo de alcohol y tabaco en adolescentes. European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education, 5(3), 371---382. http://dx.doi.org/10.1989/ejihpe.v5i3.139

Saboonchi, F. y Lundh, L. (2003). Perfectionism, anger, somatic health, and positive affect. Personality and Individual Differences, 35(4), 1585---1599. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ S0191-8869(02)00382-3

Saleh-Esfahani, F. y Ali-Besharat, M. (2010). Perfectionism and anger. Procedia. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5, 803---807. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.07.188

Santiesteban, C. y Alvarado, J. M. (2009). The aggression questionnaire for Spanish preadolescents and adolescents: AQ-PA. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 12(1), 320---326.

Sanz, J., García-Vera, M. P. y Magán, I. (2010). Anger and hostility from the perspective of the Big Five personality model. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 51(3), 262---270. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j. 1467-9450.2009.00771.x

Schultz, D., Grodack, A. y Izard, C.E. (2010). State and trait anger, fear, and social information processing. En M. Potegal, G. Stemmler y C. Spielberger (Eds.), International handbook of anger. Constituent and concomitant biological psychological and social processes (pp. 311-328). Minneapolis, USA: Springer.

Stoeber, J. y Otto, K. (2006). Positive conceptions of perfectionism: Approaches, evidence, challenges. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10(4), 295---319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327957pspr1004 2

Stoeber, J., Schneider, N., Hussain, R. y Matthews, K. (2014). Perfectionism and negative affect after repeated failure: Anxiety, depression, and anger. Journal of Individual Differences, 35(2), 87---94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/1614-0001/a000130

Wranik, T. y Scherer, K.R. (2010). Why do I get angry? A componential appraisal approach. En M. Potegal, G. Stemmler y C. Spielberger (Eds.), International handbook of anger. Constituent and concomitant biological psychological and social processes (pp. 243-266). Minneapolis, USA: Springer.
Sección
Artículos