El contexto familiar y escolar en la implicación escolar

  • Arantza Fernández-Zabala Universidad del País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea (UPV/EHU), Spain
  • Eider Goñi Universidad del País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea (UPV/EHU), Spain
  • Igor Camino Universidad del País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea (UPV/EHU), Spain
  • Luis María Zulaika Universidad del País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea (UPV/EHU), Spain

Resumen

La familia, los pares y la escuela constituyen los tres principales contextos asociados a la implicación escolar. Este estudio trata de analizar las posibles diferencias en función del sexo y de la edad en dichas variables contextuales y en la implicación escolar, así como la relación entre ellas. Participaron un total de 1543 estudiantes de Educación Secundaria, 728 hombres (47.2%) y 815 mujeres (52.8%) con edades comprendidas entre los 12 y los 18 años (M = 14.24; SD = 1.63). Todos ellos cumplimentaron la escala de Apoyo Familiar y de Amigos (AFA), la escala de apoyo de profesores del Cuestionario Health Behaviour in School aged Children (HBSC) y el School Engagement Measure (SEM). Los resultados muestran diferencias significativas a favor de las mujeres en la percepción del apoyo de los amigos, así como en la implicación comportamental y emocional. Se hallan a su vez, puntuaciones significativamente más altas para el grupo de menor edad en cuanto a la percepción del apoyo tanto de los padres como del profesorado, y en la implicación escolar. Por otro lado, se observan índices de correlación significativos entre las variables contextuales, así como entre éstas últimas y la implicación escolar, si bien es el apoyo del profesorado el que correlaciona con más intensidad.

Citas

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