Relación entre el comportamiento de rechazo a la escuela y el funcionamiento social: un enfoque de análisis de clúster

  • Carolina Gonzálvez Universidad de Alicante (España)
  • Cándido J. Inglés Universidad Miguel Hernández (España)
  • Christopher A. Kearney Universidad de Nevada (Las Vegas)
  • Ricardo Sanmartín Universidad de Alicante (España)
  • María Vicent Universidad de Alicante (España)
  • José M. García-Fernández Universidad de Alicante (España)

Resumen

Partiendo de la heterogénea casuística que caracteriza a los estudiantes que rechazan la escuela, resulta útil disponer de una clasificación de esta población en conjuntos homogéneos. Para ello, el objetivo de este estudio fue, en primer lugar, identificar mediante análisis clúster los perfiles de estudiantes que rechazan la escuela en base al modelo funcional evaluado a través de la School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised (SRAS-S). En segundo lugar, se pretende analizar si existen diferencias en las puntuaciones de funcionamiento social en función del perfil de estudiante que rechaza la escuela. En este estudio participaron 1212 niños españoles entre 8 y 11 años (M=9.12; DE=1.05) quienes cumplimentaron la SRAS-R para evaluar el rechazo escolar y la Child and Adolescent Social Adaptive Functioning Scale (CASAFS) para evaluar el funcionamiento social. Fueron cuatro los perfiles identificados: No rechazo escolar, Rechazo escolar por reforzamiento mixto, Rechazo escolar por refuerzos tangibles y Rechazo escolar por reforzamiento negativo. El perfil de No rechazo escolar alcanzó las puntuaciones medias más altas en funcionamiento social, mientras que el perfil de Rechazo escolar por reforzamiento mixto obtuvo las puntuaciones medias más bajas en funcionamiento social. En general, los perfiles hallados apoyan los clústeres identificados en estudios previos. Las implicaciones del funcionamiento social sobre el rechazo escolar se discuten.

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