El impacto de un programa de meditación Mindfulness sobre las estrategias de afrontamiento al estrés en estudiantes universitarios

  • Carmen Pardo Carballido Universidade da Coruña (España)
  • Ramón González Cabanach Universidade da Coruña (España)

Resumen

El afrontamiento puede ser definido como el uso de acciones cognitivas o acciones de comportamiento específicas para manejar las situaciones difíciles y estresantes, así como los problemas diarios. Por otra parte, las investigaciones realizadas muestran que la meditación mindfulness (MM) se puede considerar como un medio de afrontamiento de los eventos estresantes en la vida cotidiana. El objetivo de este estudio fue medir la eficacia de un programa de MM sobre las estrategias de afrontamiento al estrés en estudiantes universitarios. Sesenta y un estudiantes de la facultad de Fisioterapia de la Coruña participaron en el estudio. De ellos 30 fueron asignados a un programa de MM de 12 semanas de duración, y 31 fueron asignados al grupo control. Instrumentos: se utilizó la escala de estrategias de afrontamiento (Cabanach, Valle, Rodríguez, Piñeiro, y Freire, 2010) que mide formas tanto cognitivas como conductuales de afrontamiento del estrés académico. Estudio de tipo experimental, aleatorizado simple con un grupo control. Resultados: los resultados indican que los participantes del grupo experimental, tras su participación en el programa mejoraron de forma estadísticamente significativa sus estrategias de afrontamiento, concretamente en las dimensiones reevaluación positiva y planificación, frente al grupo control donde no hubo cambios pre-post. La meditación mindfulness puede ser un método eficaz para afrontar el estrés en estudiantes universitarios de Fisioterapia.

Citas

Arch, J.J., y Craske, M.G. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness: Emotion regulation following a focused
breathing induction. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44(12), 1849-1858.

Aspinwall, L.G., y Taylor, S.E. (1997). A stitch in time: Self-regulation and proactive coping.
Psychological Bulletin, 121(3), 417.

Bishop, S.R. (2002). What do we really know about mindfulness-based stress reduction? Psychosomatic
Medicine, 64(1), 71-83.

Bishop, S.R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N.D., Carmody, J., … Devins, G. (2004).
Mindfulness: A proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice,
11(3), 230-240.

Broderick, P.C. (2005). Mindfulness and coping with dysphoric mood: Contrasts with rumination and
distraction. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 29(5), 501-510.

Cabanach, R., Valle, A., Rodriguez, S., Piñeiro, I., y Freire, C. (2010). Academic stress scale. Stress
coping scale. Revista Iberoamericana de Psicología y Salud, 1(1), 51-64.

Carlson, L.E., Speca, M., Patel, K.D., y Goodey, E. (2003). Mindfulness‐ based stress reduction in relation
to quality of life, mood, symptoms of stress, and immune parameters in breast and prostate
cancer outpatients. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65(4), 571-581.

Charoensukmongkol, P. (2013). The contributions of mindfulness meditation on burnout, coping strategy,
and job satisfaction: Evidence from thailand. Journal of Management and Organization, 19(5),
544-558.

Desrosiers, A., Vine, V., Klemanski, D.H., y Nolen‐ Hoeksema, S. (2013). Mindfulness and emotion
regulation in depression and anxiety: Common and distinct mechanisms of action. Depression
and Anxiety, 30(7), 654-661.

Farb, N.A., Anderson, A.K., y Segal, Z.V. (2012). The mindful brain and emotion regulation in mood
disorders. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry: Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie, 57(2), 70-77.

Feldman, G., Hayes, A., Kumar, S., Greeson, J., y Laurenceau, J. (2007). Mindfulness and emotion
regulation: The development and initial validation of the cognitive and affective mindfulness
scale-revised (CMS-R). Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 29(3), 177-
190.

Folkman, S., y Moskowitz, J.T. (2004). Coping: Pitfalls and promise. Annual Review Psychology, 55, 745-
774.

Forsyth, L., y Hayes, L.L. (2014). The effects of acceptance of thoughts, mindful awareness of breathing,
and spontaneous coping on an experimentally induced pain task. Psychological Record, 64(3),
447-455.

Frewen, P.A., Evans, E.M., Maraj, N., Dozois, D.J., y Partridge, K. (2008). Letting go: Mindfulness and
negative automatic thinking. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32(6), 758-774.

Garland, E., Gaylord, S., y Fredrickson, B. (2011). Positive reappraisal mediates the stress-reductive
effects of mindfulness: An upward spiral process. Mindfulness, 2(1), 59-67.

Garland, E., Gaylord, S., y Park, J. (2009). The role of mindfulness in positive reappraisal. Explore (NY),
5(1), 37-44.

Garland, E.L., Hanley, A., Farb, N.A., y Froeliger, B. (2013). State mindfulness during meditation predicts
enhanced cognitive reappraisal. Mindfulness, 6(2), 234-242.

Halland, E., Vive De, M., Solhaug, I., Friborg, O., Rosenvinge, J., Tyssen, R., … Bjørndal, A. (2015).
Mindfulness training improves problem-focused coping in psychology and medical students:
Results from a randomized controlled trial. College Student Journal, 49(3), 387.

Huston, D.C., Garland, E.L., y Farb, N.A. (2011). Mechanisms of mindfulness in communication training.
Journal of Applied Communication Research, 39(4), 406-421.

Jacobs, S., y Blustein, D. (2008). Mindfulness as a coping mechanism for employment uncertainty. The
Career Development Quarterly, 57(2), 174.

Josefsson, T., Lindwall, M., y Broberg, A.G. (2014). The effects of a short-term mindfulness based
intervention on self-reported mindfulness, decentering, executive attention, psychological
health, and coping style: Examining unique mindfulness effects and mediators. Mindfulness,
5(1), 18-35.

Keng, S., Robins, C.J., Smoski, M.J., Dagenbach, J., y Leary, M.R. (2013). Reappraisal and mindfulness:
A comparison of subjective effects and cognitive costs. Behaviour Research and Therapy,
51(12), 899-904.

Lazarus, R.S., y Folkman, S. (1984). Stress. Appraisal, and Coping. New York: Springer.

Lind, A.B., Delmar, C., y Nielsen, K. (2014). Searching for existential security: A prospective qualitative
study on the influence of mindfulness therapy on experienced stress and coping strategies
among patients with somatoform disorders. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 77(6), 516-
521.

Lutz, A., Slagter, H.A., Dunne, J.D., y Davidson, R.J. (2008). Attention regulation and monitoring in
meditation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12(4), 163-169.

Palmer, A., y Rodger, S. (2009). Mindfulness, stress, and coping among university students. Canadian
Journal of Counselling, 43(3), 198.

Rogojanski, J., Vettese, L., y Antony, M. (2011). Coping with cigarette cravings: Comparison of
suppression versus mindfulness-based strategies. Mindfulness, 2(1), 14-26.

Stone, A.A., Kennedy-Moore, E., y Neale, J.M. (1995). Association between daily coping and end-of-day
mood. Health Psychology, 14(4), 341.

Teasdale, J.D., Segal, Z., y Williams, J.M.G. (1995). How does cognitive therapy prevent depressive
relapse and why should attentional control (mindfulness) training help? Behaviour Research
and Therapy, 33(1), 25-39.

Trousselard, M., Steiler, D., Claverie, D., y Canini, F. (2012). Relationship between mindfulness and
psychological adjustment in soldiers according to their confrontation with repeated
deployments and stressors. Psychology, 3(01), 100.

Troy, A.S., Shallcross, A.J., Davis, T.S., y Mauss, I.B. (2013). History of mindfulness-based cognitive
therapy is associated with increased cognitive reappraisal ability. Mindfulness, 4(3), 213-222.

Trungpa, C. (1976). The foundations of mindfulness. London: Shambhala Publications. INC.

Vidrine, J.I., Businelle, M.S., Reitzel, L.R., Cao, Y., Cinciripini, P.M., Marcus, M.T., y Wetter, D.W.
(2015). Coping mediates the association of mindfulness with psychological stress, affect, and
depression among smokers preparing to quit. Mindfulness, 6(3), 433-443.

Weinstein, N., Brown, K., y Ryan, R. (2009). A multi-method examination of the effects of mindflness on
stress attribution, coping, and emotional well-being. Journal of Research in Personalitu, 43(3),
374-385.
Cómo citar
PARDO CARBALLIDO, Carmen; GONZÁLEZ CABANACH, Ramón. El impacto de un programa de meditación Mindfulness sobre las estrategias de afrontamiento al estrés en estudiantes universitarios. European Journal of Health Research, [S.l.], v. 5, n. 1, p. 51-61, mayo 2019. ISSN 2445-0308. Disponible en: <https://formacionasunivep.com/ejhr/index.php/journal/article/view/137>. Fecha de acceso: 23 mayo 2019 doi: https://doi.org/10.30552/ejhr.v5i1.137.
Sección
Artículos