Rendimiento menor al esperado en Educación Secundaria Obligatoria: comparación de métodos estadísticos para su identificación en España

  • Alejandro Veas University of Alicante (España)
  • Raquel Gilar University of Alicante (España)
  • Juan Luis Castejón University of Alicante (España)
  • Pablo Miñano University of Alicante (España)

Resumen

El presente estudio realiza una comparación de los métodos estadísticos más empleados en la detección del alumnado con rendimiento menor al esperado; concretamente el método de diferencias estandarizadas, el método de residuales de regresión y el método Rasch. Se empleó una muestra de 1182 alumnos de primer y segundo curso de Enseñanza Secundaria Obligatoria de 8 centros educativos de la provincia de Alicante. Los resultados muestran un porcentaje que oscila entre el 14.55% y el 30.37% de alumnos con rendimiento menor al esperado detectados en función del método estadístico empleado, siendo el método Rasch el que más alumnos identifica. Asimismo, se detectaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre el género y el tipo de alumnado (con rendimiento normal y con rendimiento menor al esperado), mientras que no se detectaron diferencias en función del curso y el tipo de alumnado. Este estudio confirma la importancia de conocer cómo afectan las propiedades de distintos métodos estadísticos en la detección del alumnado con rendimiento menor al esperado, así como sus principales implicaciones educativas.

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Artículos

Palabras clave

Underachievement; simple difference method; regression method; Rasch method; Compulsory Secondary Education; Rendimiento académico menor al esperado; método de diferencias estandarizadas; método de residuales de regresión; método Rasch